A substance that depletes oxygen in the air, causing breathing difficulty for those persons in the vicinity.
The stacking of control valves, pressure gauges, and chokes at the top of a well to control the flow of oil and gas after the well has been drilled and completed. The term
Christmas tree is used to describe the pyramid-like shape of the stacked components.
A site at which a gas distribution company receives gas from a pipeline company or transmission system. A city gate is also known as a
town border station.
A mechanical device for increasing the pressure of a gas. Compressors are usually reciprocating or turbine devices.
Facility consisting of one or more compressors and associated equipment which supplies the energy to move gas in transmission lines by increasing the pressure of the gas.
Unrefined liquid petroleum as it occurs naturally and is pumped to the surface.
Equipment used to remove entrained water vapor from produced natural gas.
The act or process of distributing natural gas from the city gate station to the ultimate consumers.
The mains, services, and associated equipment which carry or control the supply of gas from the point of local supply to and including the sales meters of the consumers. Distribution systems may operate at various levels of pressure, typically 60 psig or less.
The derrick and other surface equipment that is used in drilling an oil or gas well. The rig is removed after the well has been completed.
The search for reservoirs of oil and gas, including aerial and geophysical surveys, geological studies, core testing, and the drilling of
wildcat wells (wells in areas where no drilling has previously been done).
Those fuels occurring naturally in the earth, such as coal, oil, or natural gas.
Pipelines, generally smaller in diameter and at lower pressures than transmission lines, that transport gas from one or more production facilities or wellheads to a gas processing plant, transmission line, or distribution line.
A compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon. The simplest and lightest forms of hydrocarbons are gases. With greater molecular weights they are liquid, while the heaviest are solids.
A barge used in the construction and placement of underwater pipelines. Joints of pipe are welded together and then lowered off the stern of the barge as it moves ahead.
liquefied natural gas (LNG)
Natural gas that has been converted to a clear liquid by cooling it to a temperature of -259°F. LNG is almost pure methane; is tasteless and odorless; and occupies a volume of 1/600 of natural gas in the vapor state.
A distribution pipeline that transports gas within a service area to the points of connection with customer service lines. Mains provide a source of supply to more than one customer.
A mechanical instrument used to measure and indicate or record the volume of natural gas or petroleum liquids that has passed through it. The primary purpose of a meter is to measure and record the throughput of the gas or liquid to determine consumption and provide the basis for billing calculation.
The lightest in the paraffin series of hydrocarbons. Methane is colorless, odorless, and flammable; and is the major component of natural gas.
Naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases found in porous geologic formations. The primary hydrocarbon component of natural gas is methane.
Acronym for the Office of Pipeline Safety onClick="return confirm('You Will Be Leaving The TSI Site To Access This Link - Is That OK?')".
A chemical substance added to natural gas to give it a readily perceptible smell at low concentrations so that the odor can be used as a warning sign to detect the presence of escaping gas.
The process of adding an
odorant to natural gas.
Office of Pipeline Safety
The office of the U. S. Department of Transportation responsible for the safety on natural gas and hazardous liquids pipelines as they impact the general public.
A non-profit corporation, public corporation, or governmental entity which will provide local, area wide, or statewide notification service, for the purpose of receiving telephonic toll-free notifications of any planned excavation or demolition activities by excavators and distributing the required excavation or demolition information to affected member utilities and other companies.
Any entity, such as a firm, corporation, individual, municipality, or partnership that engages in the transportation of natural gas or hazardous liquids. Operators are responsible for operating and maintaining pipeline systems.
Continuous pipe conduit, complete with other equipment such as valves, tanks, and pressure control devices, for transporting fluids from one point to another, usually from the source of supply to points of utilization.
pipeline quality gas
Natural gas after all of the contaminants and heavy hydrocarbons have been removed, making the gas suitable for the ultimate consumers.
An immobile offshore structure constructed on pilings from which wells are drilled, produced, or both.
Any method designed to remove or separate elements of compounds (hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon) from raw natural gas, including refrigeration, adsorption, or absorption. The resulting natural gas is considered pipeline quality.
A facility designed to remove or separate heavier hydrocarbons and unwanted non-hydrocarbons from raw natural gas. The heavier hydrocarbons and some of the non-hydrocarbons (such as sulfur) are sold, and the pipeline quality gas is returned to the pipeline.
The phase of the petroleum industry that deals with bringing the oil and gas fluids to the surface, separating them as required, and either storing them or delivering them to a pipeline system for transportation.
A paraffin hydrocarbon that is a gas at ordinary atmospheric conditions but is easily liquefied under pressure. Used as a fuel for some reciprocating engines and for domestic appliances.
A device that increases the pressure on a liquid, or is used to raise the liquid to a higher level.
A surface pumping unit that imparts reciprocating motion through a string of sucker rods to another pump at the bottom of a well, causing the oil to flow to the surface for recovery. A pump jack is also called a
Products such as gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, kerosene, and heating oil that are manufactured from crude oil at a refinery.
The physical plant and associated equipment used in the process of manufacturing marketable petroleum products from crude oil.
Equipment installed for the purpose of automatically reducing and regulating the pressure in the downstream pipeline or main to which it is connected. Included are piping and auxiliary devices such as valves, control instruments, control lines, the enclosure, and ventilation equipment.
A slang or familiar term used in the oil and gas production industry to describe a
A process whereby liquid hydrocarbons and other impurities are separated from natural gas.
A pipe which carries gas from a distribution main to the customerís meter.
A device installed upstream (ahead of) a customerís meter to reduce and regulate to a safe value the gas pressure delivered to the customerís appliances.
A tank installed above or below ground to store hydrocarbon liquids such as oil, gasoline, and propane for delivery or consumption at a future time.
town border station
A location at which gas changes ownership from one party to another (usually from a transmission operator to a distribution operator), neither of which is the ultimate consumer of the gas. A town border station is also referred to as a
city gate station.
A pipeline installed for transporting large quantities of product from a source or sources of supply to one or more distribution centers, distribution systems, or large volume customers, such as power generation plants. Typically, transmission lines are longer, larger in diameter, operate at much higher pressures, and have greater distances between connections than distribution lines.
A hole made by a drill bit during the oil and gas production process. The completed oil or gas production location is also referred to as a well.
A well drilled in an area where no oil or gas production currently exists.