Click to play audio. asphyxiant

A substance that depletes oxygen in the air, causing breathing difficulty for those persons in the vicinity.

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Click to play audio. Christmas tree

The stacking of control valves, pressure gauges, and chokes at the top of a well to control the flow of oil and gas after the well has been drilled and completed. The term Christmas tree is used to describe the pyramid-like shape of the stacked components.

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Click to play audio. city gate

A site at which a gas distribution company receives gas from a pipeline company or transmission system. A city gate is also known as a town border station.

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Click to play audio. compressor

A mechanical device for increasing the pressure of a gas. Compressors are usually reciprocating or turbine devices.

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Click to play audio. compressor station

Facility consisting of one or more compressors and associated equipment which supplies the energy to move gas in transmission lines by increasing the pressure of the gas.

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Click to play audio. crude oil

Unrefined liquid petroleum as it occurs naturally and is pumped to the surface.

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Click to play audio. dehydrator

Equipment used to remove entrained water vapor from produced natural gas.

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Click to play audio. distribution

The act or process of distributing natural gas from the city gate station to the ultimate consumers.

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Click to play audio. distribution system

The mains, services, and associated equipment which carry or control the supply of gas from the point of local supply to and including the sales meters of the consumers. Distribution systems may operate at various levels of pressure, typically 60 psig or less.

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Click to play audio. drilling rig

The derrick and other surface equipment that is used in drilling an oil or gas well. The rig is removed after the well has been completed.

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Click to play audio. exploration

The search for reservoirs of oil and gas, including aerial and geophysical surveys, geological studies, core testing, and the drilling of wildcat wells (wells in areas where no drilling has previously been done).

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Click to play audio. fossil fuels

Those fuels occurring naturally in the earth, such as coal, oil, or natural gas.

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Click to play audio. gathering line

Pipelines, generally smaller in diameter and at lower pressures than transmission lines, that transport gas from one or more production facilities or wellheads to a gas processing plant, transmission line, or distribution line.

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Click to play audio. hydrocarbon

A compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon. The simplest and lightest forms of hydrocarbons are gases. With greater molecular weights they are liquid, while the heaviest are solids.

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Click to play audio. lay barge

A barge used in the construction and placement of underwater pipelines. Joints of pipe are welded together and then lowered off the stern of the barge as it moves ahead.

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Click to play audio. liquefied natural gas (LNG)

Natural gas that has been converted to a clear liquid by cooling it to a temperature of -259°F. LNG is almost pure methane; is tasteless and odorless; and occupies a volume of 1/600 of natural gas in the vapor state.

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main

Click to play audio. A distribution pipeline that transports gas within a service area to the points of connection with customer service lines. Mains provide a source of supply to more than one customer.

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Click to play audio. meter

A mechanical instrument used to measure and indicate or record the volume of natural gas or petroleum liquids that has passed through it. The primary purpose of a meter is to measure and record the throughput of the gas or liquid to determine consumption and provide the basis for billing calculation.

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Click to play audio. methane (CH4)

The lightest in the paraffin series of hydrocarbons. Methane is colorless, odorless, and flammable; and is the major component of natural gas.

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Click to play audio. natural gas

Naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases found in porous geologic formations. The primary hydrocarbon component of natural gas is methane.

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Click to play audio. OPS

Acronym for the Office of Pipeline Safety onClick="return confirm('You Will Be Leaving The TSI Site To Access This Link - Is That OK?')".

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Click to play audio. odorant

A chemical substance added to natural gas to give it a readily perceptible smell at low concentrations so that the odor can be used as a warning sign to detect the presence of escaping gas.

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Click to play audio. odorization

The process of adding an odorant to natural gas.

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Click to play audio. Office of Pipeline Safety

The office of the U. S. Department of Transportation responsible for the safety on natural gas and hazardous liquids pipelines as they impact the general public.

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Click to play audio. one-call center

A non-profit corporation, public corporation, or governmental entity which will provide local, area wide, or statewide notification service, for the purpose of receiving telephonic toll-free notifications of any planned excavation or demolition activities by excavators and distributing the required excavation or demolition information to affected member utilities and other companies.

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Click to play audio. operator

Any entity, such as a firm, corporation, individual, municipality, or partnership that engages in the transportation of natural gas or hazardous liquids. Operators are responsible for operating and maintaining pipeline systems.

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Click to play audio. pipeline

Continuous pipe conduit, complete with other equipment such as valves, tanks, and pressure control devices, for transporting fluids from one point to another, usually from the source of supply to points of utilization.

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Click to play audio. pipeline quality gas

Natural gas after all of the contaminants and heavy hydrocarbons have been removed, making the gas suitable for the ultimate consumers.

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Click to play audio. platform

An immobile offshore structure constructed on pilings from which wells are drilled, produced, or both.

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Click to play audio. processing

Any method designed to remove or separate elements of compounds (hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon) from raw natural gas, including refrigeration, adsorption, or absorption. The resulting natural gas is considered pipeline quality.

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Click to play audio. processing plant

A facility designed to remove or separate heavier hydrocarbons and unwanted non-hydrocarbons from raw natural gas. The heavier hydrocarbons and some of the non-hydrocarbons (such as sulfur) are sold, and the pipeline quality gas is returned to the pipeline.

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Click to play audio. production

The phase of the petroleum industry that deals with bringing the oil and gas fluids to the surface, separating them as required, and either storing them or delivering them to a pipeline system for transportation.

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Click to play audio. propane (C3H8)

A paraffin hydrocarbon that is a gas at ordinary atmospheric conditions but is easily liquefied under pressure. Used as a fuel for some reciprocating engines and for domestic appliances.

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Click to play audio. pump

A device that increases the pressure on a liquid, or is used to raise the liquid to a higher level.

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Click to play audio. pump jack

A surface pumping unit that imparts reciprocating motion through a string of sucker rods to another pump at the bottom of a well, causing the oil to flow to the surface for recovery. A pump jack is also called a rocking horse.

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Click to play audio. refined products

Products such as gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, kerosene, and heating oil that are manufactured from crude oil at a refinery.

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Click to play audio. refinery

The physical plant and associated equipment used in the process of manufacturing marketable petroleum products from crude oil.

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Click to play audio. regulator station

Equipment installed for the purpose of automatically reducing and regulating the pressure in the downstream pipeline or main to which it is connected. Included are piping and auxiliary devices such as valves, control instruments, control lines, the enclosure, and ventilation equipment.

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Click to play audio. rocking horse

A slang or familiar term used in the oil and gas production industry to describe a pump jack.

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Click to play audio. separation

A process whereby liquid hydrocarbons and other impurities are separated from natural gas.

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Click to play audio. service line

A pipe which carries gas from a distribution main to the customerís meter.

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Click to play audio. service regulator

A device installed upstream (ahead of) a customerís meter to reduce and regulate to a safe value the gas pressure delivered to the customerís appliances.

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Click to play audio. storage tank

A tank installed above or below ground to store hydrocarbon liquids such as oil, gasoline, and propane for delivery or consumption at a future time.

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Click to play audio. town border station

A location at which gas changes ownership from one party to another (usually from a transmission operator to a distribution operator), neither of which is the ultimate consumer of the gas. A town border station is also referred to as a city gate station.

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Click to play audio. transmission line

A pipeline installed for transporting large quantities of product from a source or sources of supply to one or more distribution centers, distribution systems, or large volume customers, such as power generation plants. Typically, transmission lines are longer, larger in diameter, operate at much higher pressures, and have greater distances between connections than distribution lines.

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Click to play audio. well

A hole made by a drill bit during the oil and gas production process. The completed oil or gas production location is also referred to as a well.

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Click to play audio. wildcat

A well drilled in an area where no oil or gas production currently exists.

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